Pakistan country profile
Pakistan is characterized by diverse topography, ecosystems, and climate zones. The temperature varies, but is generally drier and hotter near the coast and the plains of the Indus River and cooler in the uplands and Himalayas. It has four recognized seasons, one of which is the summer monsoon from June to September. El Niño is a significant influence on climate variability in Pakistan, with anomalies in both temperature and flood frequency and impact correlated with the El Niño cycle. A vast majority of the country’s 220 million people live along the Indus River which is prone to severe flooding in July and August.
Pakistan faces some of the highest disaster risk levels in the world. It is prone to extreme temperatures, droughts, and floods. It is one of the most seismically active countries in the world, making earthquakes common and destructive. Pakistan is also at risk of epidemics, landslides, and tropical cyclones.
The recent 2022 flooding event in Pakistan has been described as the worst in the country’s history, leaving an estimated one-third of the country under water and affecting 33 million people. It is the world’s deadliest flood since the 2017 monsoon season brought severe floods across South Asia.
INFORM RISK INDEX (2022)
Hazard and exposure: 7.2 | Vulnerability: 5.8 | Lack of coping capacity: 5.4 | Total: 6.1 (high) | Rank: 24
HAZARDS COVERED BY ANTICIPATION
Drought | Heatwave | Population movement
EXPERIENCE ON ANTICIPATION
- The Start Network has allocated financing for anticipatory alerts on heat waves and displacement. In January 2018, £400,000 was budgeted in anticipation of refugee returnees across Afghanistan and Pakistan (alert 205). In May 2018, it reached 15,125 people ahead of a heat wave (alert 237).
- The Pakistan Red Cross Society and German Red Cross developed an Early Action Protocol (EAP) for floods along the Kabul river basin targeting 14,820 people with multi-purpose cash. PRCS and GRC are furthermore currently looking into extending the Early Action Protocol to the Indus river basin.
- In 2018, FAO Pakistan implemented well-targeted early actions in the district of Tharparkar to support livestock and crop and vegetable production and thus mitigate the impact of drought on food insecurity following predictions of drought risk ahead of the monsoon season.
- FAO finalized its drought EW early action plan for Sindh province in April 2019.