Key facts:

Hazards covered by anticipation    

Riverine floods | Cold waves

Anticipation partners in country    

Nepal Red Cross Society | Danish Red Cross | Humanity and Inclusion | World Food Programme | Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Center | UNICEF | Federal and provincial government stakeholders and agencies relevant to FbA and SRSP in Nepal | OCHA

Inform Risk Index    

Hazard and Exposure: 5.7

Vulnerability: 4.5

Lack of Coping Capacity: 5.6

Total: 5.2 (high risk)

Rank: 34

Country profile

Located in the Central Himalayas, Nepal’s climate and topography expose it to diverse hazards. It has five climate zones ranging from tropical and subtropical to artic and corresponding to different elevations along the mountains. Its steep mountain sides contribute to landslides, flash floods, glacial lake outbursts, avalanches. It is also susceptible to cold waves, floods, earthquakes, drought, epidemics, and fire. According to historical records, each of these hazards lead to fatalities and destroyed housing and infrastructure from 1971-2011. Floods caused by intense rainfall during the monsoon season are among the most damaging events, contributing to loss of lives, infrastructure, crops, and contributing to erosion and landslides, which cause additional death and destruction.


Since 2016 WFP has been partnering with the Nepal Red Cross Society, Danish Red Cross, and Practical Action Consulting, to develop anticipatory action for riverine floods.  

Forecast-based Action and Shock Responsive Social Protection in Provinces 5 and Sudhur Paschim, Nepal

This project, started in 2020, aims to integrate shock responsiveness and anticipatory action into Nepal’s social security allowance programme to inform the development of more responsive and anticipatory social protection and early warning systems that protect the most vulnerable before, during, and after shocks.

View project page here.

Piloting Forecast-based Action in Nepal

Since 2018 the Nepal Red Cross Society has been working, with support of the Danish Red Cross and the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre to develop and scale up Forecast-based Action for riverine floods.

View project page here.

The objective of the pilot is to provide collective anticipatory humanitarian action to people at risk of predicted severe monsoon flooding in Nepal. The pilot will aim to provide life-saving assistance to over 80,000 people across 23 floodprone municipalities (“palikas”):

  • In eastern Nepal: Province No. 1, Sunsari district – 5 palikas; Province No. 2, Saptari district - 7 palikas
  • In western Nepal: Lumbini Province, Banke district - 3 palikas; Lumbini Province, Bardiya district – 6 palikas; Sudurpaschim Province, Kailali district - 2 palikas.

Read more here.