Key facts:

Hazards covered by anticipation    

Drought | Floods | Conflict/ Civil unrest

Anticipation partners in country    

Kenya Red Cross | START Network | Action Aid | FAO | WFP | Kenya Meteorological Department | National Drought Management Authority | National Disaster Operations Centre | Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries | Ministry of Labour and Social Protection

Inform Risk Index    

Hazard and Exposure: 5.8

Vulnerability: 6.0

Lack of Coping Capacity: 6.0

Total: 5.9 (high risk)

Rank: 24


Photo by KRCS and IFRC

Country profile

Kenya is a lower-middle income country and the ninth largest economy on the African Continent. Over 50 percent of GDP comes from the service sector, whereas only services 25 comes from agriculture. Approximately 40 percent of the population lives below the poverty line. Kenya’s climate varies greatly from region to region, from the warm, wet and tropical areas along the coastline, to temperate mountains in the center, and arid and semi-arid savannah. Kenya is exposed to cyclones, wildfires, thunderstorms, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods, droughts, HIV/AIDS and conflict. Among these hazards, droughts and flood pose the greatest risk. Large areas of Kenya are prone to drought, which affects approximately 5 million people in the country each year and contributes to crop and animal loss and subsequent food insecurity, especially among small-holder farmers and pastoralists in Central Kenya and around Nairobi. Major droughts occur on average once per decade in the Horn of Africa as a whole and smaller ones more frequently. Riverine floods are a seasonal occurrence in Kenya, particularly along the Tana River and near Lake Victoria. Urban areas often experience frequent flooding as a result of intense rainfall and poor drainage. Flooding affects between 50,000-150,000 people per year in Kenya, damaging building and public infrastructure and leading to significant loss of life.


In July, START Network provided funds to Action Aid to reduce election-based conflict and violence (alert 175). A consortium of organizations in the country offered peacekeeping trainings and conducted media campaigns to reduce the potential for violence.

Development of Forecast-based Action mechanisms addressing drought induced food insecurity in Kenya

Beginning in 2020, Welthungerhilfe launched a project to develop a Forecast-based Action mechanism supporting food security for drought events in Kenya. The project develops a drought trigger-model which activates Early Action Protocols (EAP) to reduce the risks to the food security of vulnerable communities, prevent negative coping strategies and reduce loss and damages of drought affected households.

Scaling Up Anticipatory Actions for Food Security in Africa

In 2021 WFP began this project to strengthen national capacities for anticipatory action through establishing systems for forecast-based financing for drought.

FAO is working to support early action for drought and COVID-19 in Kenya.

Kenya Red Cross is currently working with national stakeholders to develop an EAP for floods.