Egypt country profile


The Arab Republic of Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa. It is the most populous country in North Africa. It has a dry, hot climate that is dominated by the desert with two seasons; a mild winter season with rain along the coastal areas and a hot, dry summer. The primary difference between the seasons are variations in daytime temperatures and changes in prevailing winds. A majority of the country’s population is concentrated along the Nile Valley and Delta. Potential sea level rise in the future could gravely impact Egypt's densely populated coastal strip and have ramifications on the economic, agricultural, and industrial sectors.

Common climate hazards in Egypt include flash floods induced by heavy rains, dust storms, and extreme temperatures. Earthquakes and disease outbreaks also occur. Egypt is considered highly vulnerable to climate change due to its primary dependence on the Nile River, which serves needs for potable water, agriculture, industry, fish farming, and power generation. Future challenges are centred around water resource availability, changing precipitation patterns, and increasing population demands.


Hazard and exposure: 6.1  |  Vulnerability: 3.8  |  Lack of coping capacity: 4.6 |  Total: 4.7 (medium)  |  Rank: 52


Heat waves | Cold waves


  • WFP is in the early stages of developing anticipatory actions to minimize the impacts of heat waves and cold waves in Egypt. In 2016, 2017, and 2018 farmers were told to irrigate to overcome heat waves affecting their wheat cultivation. Losses were reduced by 60%.